自己的世界很小,但很自由

Posted on 十二月 31st, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

2016年的最后一天。探望老人和锻炼身体后静静地坐下来泡了一杯茶。突然想起了一个人。
读大学的时候,有一个英语班的班长,人长得很帅,也很聪明,是大家仰慕的对象。但有一天这个人出事了,因为他画的裸体画被人发现了,画的边上写的都是有关女人的幻记。
每个人小时候都会对某些东西产生幻觉或幻想,但大多数人知道分寸,能把握好它。人有两个世界,一个是自己的世界,一个是外面的世界,两个世界之间只隔了很薄的一层。自己的世界很小,你可以把它撑大,但它是有限度的,搞得不好就会被别人甚至被自己捅坏。那个班长就是典型的“自捅者”。没有人为他可惜,只是没想到他这么傻。
自己的世界很小,很脆弱,但很自由。不过,只有在两个世界中都能找到自由的人,才是真正自由的人。

我们为什么要阅读?

Posted on 十二月 30th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

来西宁参加青海省图书馆、文化馆和美术馆新馆开馆活动,并作了有关学习技能的报告。在最后环节我邀请青海省电台主持人王老师朗诵并解读了弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙关于为什么要阅读的一个片段,反响很不错。感谢省馆的精心安排,这是一个有意义的尝试。

谁读书又是为了达到什么期望的目的呢?我们所不断追求的某些事业本身不就是有益的吗?乐趣不就是最终目的吗?读书不就是—种这样的事业吗?至少,我有时就梦见过:最后审判日来临,那些征服者、大法官、政治家都来接受他们的奖赏——他们的冠冕、他们的桂冠、他们的雕刻在大理石上的永垂不朽的名字,这时,当万能的上帝看见我们胳肢窝里夹着我们心爱的书本走过来了,他转过身去,不无妒忌地对圣彼得说:“看,这些人不用奖赏。我们在这里没有什么东西好给他们。他们爱好读书。”——弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙

文化事业在政府工作中的分量提升

Posted on 十二月 27th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

昨天,上海市政府邀请参事对《政府工作报告》提出意见。参加会议的22位参事发了言,杨雄市长、四位市领导和各主要职能部门的负责人都出席,并耐心地听取了各位参事的意见,时间长达3小时。
我主要从文化方面提了一些建议,首先谈了一带一路建设要关注文化的交流,并举了政协这次出访的例子说明一带一路沿线国家之间文化交流的必要性,其次谈了《公共文化服务保障法》出台后上海应有的举措和建议,第三谈了众创空间的建设应从企业和科研院所扩大到社会公共文化机构各个层面,并举了上图三年前建设创•新空间并获得文化部雒部长批示的例子。
其实,要讲的话很多,但昨天这个场面比较聚焦,所以在对报告起草给予肯定的基础上只从文化层面提了一些建设性意见。据其他几位参事讲,本届政府工作报告在文化方面上的分量有所加重,说明政府在软实力建设上力度提升,尤其值得一提的是,上海图书馆东馆建设正式启动,明年动工,十三五期间完成,可以说这也可以说是全球图书馆界的一件大事。

美国图书馆协会发布2016年度十大新闻

Posted on 十二月 21st, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

美国图书馆协会刚刚发布了2016年度十大新闻,很有意思,一半左右不是传统图书馆行业的消息,说明图书馆正在发生变化,与社会关联度增强。
1. 后真相时代
2. Carla Hayden任美国国会图书馆馆长
3. 国会图书馆最近宣布将不再使用“非法外国人(illegal aliens)”
4. 围绕网上公开有关侵犯著作权论文的Sci-Hub的讨论
5. 人工智能的发展
6. 诸多图书馆开始支付论文处理费(APC)
7. 网上直播的知识产权问题
8. Pokemon Go(口袋妖怪go)
9. 开放数据活动的增强
10. 谷歌Books案的最终判决

持之以恒

Posted on 十二月 18th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

由于出访和出差,半个多月没有进泳池了。早上去斯波特游了泳,游玩感到有点疲惫,而且腰也有点僵硬的感觉。以前穿袜和穿鞋都是站着的,今天弯腰时感到很吃力。
出访欧洲时生怕咳嗽完不成任务,所以带了一些备用的猛药,也吃了不少黑巧克力和奶酪,虽有点感冒,但还是挺了过来,代价是体重增加了不少。
回国第二天就到北京出差,晚上想到公园散步,但雾霾太重,只好在国图大院里与倪晓健馆长边聊边走,然后到房间里补了几圈,还是觉得锻炼不够。半个月里长了点肚子,看来这两天还是要加把劲。
从馆长岗位上退下来,本以为会轻松一些,但这段时间反而觉得更忙。既有来自上面的课题和任务,又要做一些讲座,而且每一次讲座都要有一点新东西,否则对不起听众,所以一坐下来就要写、要看很多东西,这一切都有赖于健康的精神状态。
再忙也要锻炼,要持之以恒,否则很容易散了架子。

Shanghai: from a big city to a BIG (balanced, innovative and graceful) city

Posted on 十二月 18th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

I.
Shanghai is an international metropolitan city. Unlike other cities, Shanghai is a city in which there are sharp contrasts between the old and new, traditional and modern, and the East and West. It is these characteristics that have helped to create the unique feature of the city.

This feature can be seen from the Italian writer Ezzelino Magli’s three-day trip in Shanghai in 1924. In his travel log entitled A Gateway to China (Shanghai), he recorded his tour everyday. On November 4, he hired a rickshaw to go through the streets of Shanghai. He crossed the Waibaidu Bridge over the Suzhou River and entered the British Settlement, saw the buildings on the Bund and bought a lot of handicrafts on the Nanjing Road. On November 5, he hurried past the French Concession and came to the labyrinth of the old city, where he was worried about the hygienic condition, but at the same time amazed at the Chinese gardens and buildings. On November 6, he went to Xujiahui and Longhua Temple in the suburbs, and with Padre Gherzi, the only Italian he met during the trip as the guide, he visited the Observatory. On November 7, his trip in Shanghai was over and he took aboard a ship to his next stop, Japan.

Today, Shanghai has become a highly modernized international metropolis, but still maintains the fusion and balance between the old and new, traditional and modern, and the East and West. Shanghai has two unique features in its urban landscape. The first is the architectural contour that symbolizes the city of Shanghai. The Lujiazui Financial Street in Pudong was built in the 21st century, in addition to the old Shanghai Financial Street on the Bund. Shanghai is the architectural museum showing the buildings of different countries, with various architectural styles and cultural relics, and presenting diverse tastes and unique designs. The second are the trees along the streets of Shanghai. When driveways are widened, many cities have removed the trees along their streets, but the persistent Shanghai people still regard trees along the streets as the city’s tree of life. Whether they are the trees on the Huaihai Road or the Wukang Road, they have all added to the glory and warmth of the city. The trees along the street share the air and the fate of the buildings and the people in the city, as well as blocking the chaotic sight produced by advertising signs. These two features in the urban landscape integrate the city’s ancient and modern, the Chinese and foreign. From the first day of opening the port, Shanghai has kept step with the world. In 1895, the brothers Lumiere showed a movie in a cafe in Paris, and only seven months later, this fashionable thing quietly appeared in Shanghai. For more than 100 years, Shanghai has always been at the same level of the global information. This is Shanghai, both traditional and modern, both nostalgic for the past and embracing the future.

II
Shanghai is located in the East China Sea coast and the Yangtze River estuary. Its history can be traced back to six thousand years ago, but the urban area was formed in about the early 10th century. In 1267, the Shanghai town was established and in 1292, it was independent from the Huating County and became the Shanghai County, which marked the beginning of the city of Shanghai. Shanghai’s modern history began in 1843, when Shanghai opened port, and the Anglo-American International Settlement and the French Concession were established. In 1949 the People’s Republic of China was founded, and after the reform and opening up in 1978, Shanghai entered the modernization era together with the whole country.

Over 700 years ago, the Shanghai County had only a population of 100,000. Around 1843, its population was about 500,000; in 1949, it was about 5 million, and by the end of 2015, the population of the regular Shanghai residents reached 24.15 million.

The vitality of a city is directly proportional to its mobility. With its unique economic vitality and cultural charm, this city attracts large numbers of people to come for adventure and innovation. People communicate with each other and at the same time give birth to infinite opportunities. The 2010 Shanghai World Expo attracted the attention of the world to Shanghai. 246 countries and international organizations participated in the expo and 73 million visitors came to the expo, creating the International Expo record with the largest number of exhibitors and visitors.

But Shanghai is too large, and in turn the urban disease has become a serious impediment to the healthy growth of the city. Over the past 30 years, Shanghai’s population has doubled, the city’s road mileage has increased fivefold, and civilian car ownership has increased 23 times.

Shanghai needs a future-oriented strategic planning, so the “2040 Shanghai Urban Master Plan” came into being. Here I would like to use the three key words: balance, innovation and gracefulness to describe the future prospects of Shanghai.

(1)Balanced city
Shanghai has been developing an eco-friendly public infrastructure that works with nature.
The city of Shanghai has many similarities with the cities in Italy. They all have the tradition of “narrow road and dense road network”, and people like to live at the water front. In fact, Shanghai was also a water city in early days, with rivers and lakes covering over 11% of its surface. Following the industrialization and urbanization, the waterway was gradually replaced by the driveway. By the turn of the century, the city’s water surface rate decreased by 2.7%, which means in the past 20 years, Shanghai’s water area decreased by 25%. The “water city” became an “automobile city”. The new urban planning has proposed to build the overall planning layout composed of “one river network, 14 sections of comprehensive water management and 226 backbone channels”, so that in 2040 the water surface rate can reach 10.50%, which means to make part of the roads into waterway, and return water to the people.

At the same time, in order to make the Suzhou River and the Huangpu River become another important feature in the urban landscape, Suzhou River and Huangpu River received comprehensive management from the beginning of this century. The industrial terminal function is transformed into the hydrophilic pedestrian function. Huangpu District and Xuhui District on either side of the Huangpu River are linked with the hydrophilic promenade, and the plan to open up the 21-km shoreline from the Yangpu Bridge to Xupu Bridge on the east coast of the Huangpu River will be completed soon. A number of industrial and terminal areas on either side of the Suzhou River have also been removed, which not only has improved water quality, but also greatly improved the environment. By 2040, the river coast of nearly 20 kilometers will also become the public hydrophilic promenade. In the near future, Shanghai will return to the era of the “water city”!

The “Master Plan” also encourages public transport, bicycles and other means of green transport. From the beginning of this century, Shanghai has implemented the license auction measure to limit the growth in the number of passenger vehicles, as well as encouraging the development of green transport and electric vehicles. By 2020, a rail network will be established, consisting of 18 rail lines and more than 500 stations, with altogether a mileage of 800 km. In 2040, travel by public transport in the central city will account for more than 50% of all the means of the transport, and green transport will reach 85%. The coverage of one rail transit station within every 600 meters will reach 60% or more.

(2)Innovative city
Shanghai has the regional advantages of a relatively complete range of educational disciplines, and rich research and information resources. There are 68 colleges and universities, more than 5,400 high-tech enterprises, more than 300 foreign R & D centers, including more than 120 R & D institutions of the world’s top 500, accounting for 1/4 and 1/3 respectively of the total number in the whole country. In order to build an influential center of scientific and technological innovation in the world, Shanghai has identified indicators conducive to scientific and technological innovation. By 2040, R & D investment will account for 5% of the GDP, and the growth of the financial sector will account for about 20% of the city’s GDP. In order to become a traffic and information hub of “global reach and local touch”, it is decided that by 2040, the number of annual inbound tourists will exceed 15 million, the international passenger ratio reach 40%, international cargo transit ratio reach 15%, and the coverage of high-speed wireless data communications network will reach 100%.

At the same time, Shanghai will vigorously develop cultural and creative industries. In 2015, Shanghai’s cultural and creative industry accounted for 12% of the city’s total output value, and has become a pillar industry to lead and support Shanghai’s new round of development and an important force for Shanghai to build a global science and technology innovation center. By 2040, the employment of cultural industries will increase, accounting for more than 15% of the total employment.

(3)Graceful city
The “Master Plan” begins with people’s needs in life and work, and will create a 15-minute community life circle suitable for living, employment, travel and study, and provide high-quality public services for people of all ages, comfortable public spaces and open and shared community environment. The coverage of public service facilities within 15-minute walking distance will reach 100%, and public green space per capita reach 15 square meters. The city will build 226 river spaces blending water and green areas, forming a leisure network for slow-moving activities with a total length of more than 2,000 km, and for public exercise and leisure activities.

In addition to the Shanghai Cultural Square, Shanghai Symphony Orchestra Concert Hall and Shanghai International Dance Center in the last two years, the city will construct the Shanghai Library East, the Shanghai Museum East, both are in Central Cultural District in Pudong and the new Shanghai Grand Opera House by 2020.

With the Shanghai Library as an example, there are 237 branch libraries covering the whole city, offering one-card-through book loan services. When the 110,000-square-meter East Building is completed, it will go beyond the traditional library functions and become a center of knowledge, learning and communication.

III.
Shanghai will no longer pursue large physical spaces, but will create a BIG city. To this end, in all these years Shanghai has tried to limit and reduce its scale and enhance the urban soft power and quality of development by means of subtraction, and setting up the bottom lines and the red lines.

The first is subtraction. By 2040, the total planned land for construction in this city will be reduced from the “ceiling” of 3,226 km2 established in the original land use master plan to 3,200 km2, including 200 km2 “reserved space”. By 2040, the population control target will reach about 25 million, and the city will make efforts to enhance the urban vitality and population mobility.

The second is setting up the bottom lines. The city will shift its target from encouraging expansion in the traditional planning to emphasizing more on constraints and boundaries. The four bottom lines of population, land, safety and environment should be emphasized. Of the planned land for construction, sites will be reserved for major events and projects, and planning and control should be strengthened to cope with the uncertainties of future urban development. It is especially important to establish the concept that “security is the first element of urban development”, in order to ensure the safe and orderly operation of the city.

The third is setting up the red lines. It is necessary to set up the four red lines of ecological protection, basic farmland protection, urban development boundaries and cultural heritage protection. In the aspect of cultural heritage protection, cultural resources, historical buildings, natural reserves and etc. will be included in the red lines, in order to conduct regular assessments. There will be additional protected areas and expanded scope of the red lines as time goes on.

In the future, Shanghai will become an international metropolis in the true sense: a balanced, innovative and graceful city. Shanghai was once a “city of water”, but industrialization and urbanization buried a large number of rivers and lakes, and the city has become a “city of cars”. Today Shanghai is building a city of people suitable for living, employment and study through self-restraint and moderate development. Shanghai will become a global city in the true sense.

欧洲之行(三)

Posted on 十二月 14th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

威尼斯演讲结束后,我们一行来到佛罗伦萨,参观了中意创意中心、并与当地华人进行了交流。然后来到罗马,拜会了中国驻意大利大使馆和意大利文化部门,参观了一些文化设施。在与当地文化部门交流中,我们得知由于政局变化,五星运动党罗马市掌权后,对华政策上会有一些变化,今后五星可能进一步掌握国家政权,所以我们更要有所准备,开展积极主动的交流。
十一日来到希腊,首先与希腊经社理事会见面交流,然后拜会了文化部,在新任部长与我们的交流中,我们感受到了这个国家与中国的友好和期待。张副主席在介绍了代表团访欧意图和交流成果后,阐述了我国一带一路的文化政策和与希腊进行深度交流的愿望,我也在会上谈了本次访问的感受。我觉得与一带一路沿线国家进行文化交流,是建立一带一路文化和命运共同体的一种探索和尝试。由于沿线各国有不同的文化和意识形态,中国更应文化先行,加强与各国的交流,加深与民间的沟通。
我们还参观了希腊国家图书馆及其即将开放的新馆。希腊经济并不宽裕,但在文化建设和保护上绝不含糊,这一点在新馆建设和卫城保护上就可以看得出来。
此外,这次访问的一大收获是加深了对当地华人的了解。无论是在意大利还是希腊,华人社会的主流是一批改革开放后来殴的浙江人和福建人,经过一番摸爬滚打,他们不仅建立了互助团体,形成了能与政府和社会沟通交流的机制,而且建立了经济网络,从低端逐步走向中高端经济领域,为进入主流社会奠定了良好基础,虽然现在他们还未深入到国家机构和政治层面,但他们在回馈当地社会,尤其是在几次撤侨行动中发挥的主人翁作用中可以看到,当地华人已形成一支不可小觑的力量。他们对来自国内的客人不仅热情,而且透露出强烈的为国效力的愿望,令代表团一行深受感动。这批人将成为一带一路战略的主力军,在经济与文化交流中发挥更大的作用。
第二次来希腊了。虽然现代希腊与古希腊不能相比,而且又处在经济困难时期,但我从来没有看轻希腊。这里的文明让我着迷,这里的空气让我振奋。“言必称希腊”,希腊是西方文明的发源地,近代西方哲学、美学、医学、文学、数学、天文学、伦理学等,无不发端于此。
希腊被罗马以及被后来的其他文化或民族征服后,仍延续着它的文化和文明。在东罗马时期,不仅大多数居民仍使用希腊语,而且文化上也延续了希腊的传统。即使在后来土耳其统治期间希腊人仍然讲希腊语。这里不是说希腊文化胜于罗马文化,因为一直到东罗马时期,希腊文化总体上还是罗马文化的一部分,但拉丁语几乎成为死的语言,而希腊语则延续至今,这要归功于文字和文献的强韧性,我是图书馆员,当然更喜欢强调文献的价值。
访欧结束了,也想谈谈出访的一些感受。访问团六人似乎是最佳组合,张恩迪副主席风度翩翩,英语流畅,在很多场合直接用英语交流,给对方留下深刻印象。张丽副秘书长协调能力强,是一位好管家。王丽萍女士的睿智和优雅赢得听众高度赞誉,郭处长和冯先生为代表团成功访问作出了默默无闻的奉献,两位外语都很出色。

欧洲之行(二)

Posted on 十二月 8th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

7日下午,我们一行来到威尼斯大学,做了第二场演讲,来的听众更多,副校长亲自主持会议,然后我们三位依次演讲,我的发言主题依旧,但增加了意大利要素。这次提问环节更为活跃,参与感更强一些。
威尼斯的起源可以追溯到公元452年,当时人们为了躲避匈奴王阿拉提的入侵来到泻湖的岛屿上。这一地区虽属东罗马统治,但威尼斯拥有自治权。697年成为威尼斯共和国。其间威尼斯在东西罗马之间巧妙周旋,威尼斯人觉得名义上从属东罗马帝国更有利,因为天高皇帝远,但西罗马帝国不买账,遂于810年攻打威尼斯,但由于士兵不谙水性,没有得逞,于是认可威尼斯独立于西罗马帝国,条件是进贡军费,这倒反而给了威尼斯与周围各国通商的机会,不仅赚回了钱,而且作为贸易城市迅速崛起。要成为一个国家就需要有文化象征物,当欧洲分为三大部分后,各国都在寻找自己的守护圣人(Patronus),威尼斯在823年将圣马可的遗体从埃及亚历山大运回来,从此圣马可成为威尼斯的守护圣人,于是有了宏伟的圣马可大教堂。有了钱,又有了文化支撑,威尼斯逐渐强大起来。836年与900年威尼斯相继击退了穆斯林和匈牙利的进攻,并在战争中形成了强大的海军力量。后应拜占庭之邀与诺曼人开战,赢得胜利后进一步扩大海外殖民地。威尼斯在十字军东征中大赚一笔,13世纪的一百年里威尼斯经过四次战争,打败热那亚,成为盛极一时的海上强国。后来的300多年里与奥斯曼帝国打打停停,直至1797年败在拿破仑手下,国家也被吞并,威尼斯共和国历史至此终结。
我这次是第一次来威尼斯,这里的一切都感到很新鲜,尤其是穿插于水城小巷之中,真正体验了欧洲窄巷子大广场的独特魅力。上海也是水上城市,但上海城市水面率仅10%不到,而威尼斯是三分之一以上,上海目前正致力于转型,在生态城市建设上正在朝还水与民的方向努力,我们不仅要让老外看到中国人富了起来,更要让老外感受到中国人的生态自觉和社会责任。

上海市政协在爱沙尼亚首都开展文化对话

Posted on 十二月 8th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

新华社塔林12月7日电(记者郭春菊)上海市政协代表团6日在爱沙尼亚首都塔林市举行“城市、生活、文化”文化对话会,宣传上海市和谐发展理念和未来愿景,推广优秀中国文化,开展中外文化交流。
上海市政协副主席张恩迪在塔林大学孔子学院主办的对话会上致辞说,希望此次对话会能增进爱沙尼亚人对上海的了解。
上海市政府参事、中国图书馆学会副理事长吴建中发表了题为“上海——从大型城市走向平衡、创新、优雅之都”的主旨演讲,介绍上海的发展历史、多元文化、和谐发展理念和文化遗产保护等,希望通过中外文化交流促进“民心相通”。
上海市政协委员、著名剧作家王丽萍重点介绍自己的电视剧作品《媳妇的美好时代》《双城生活》《生活启示录》的创作过程与灵感发现,希望人们“从电视剧里了解中国当下老百姓的生活”。
塔林大学孔子学院师生等各界人士约50人出席此次对话会,并就文学创作和人物塑造等问题进行交流。(完)

欧洲之行(一)

Posted on 十二月 7th, 2016 in 感悟 by jzwu

这次随上海市政协代表团出访。访问的主题是讲好中国故事。爱沙尼亚是整个出访的第一站,它是离中国最近的欧盟国家。12月5日下午,代表团一行抵达首都塔林,然后利用一点空闲时间感受了一下这座美丽的城市。塔林是一个战略要地,地处西北欧和东欧之间,千百年来为兵家必争之地,长期处于其他文化和民族影响之下,虽然其历史可追溯到5000年前,但作为城市的历史仅近千年。11世纪建立了城堡,到13世纪成为条顿骑士团和北十字军的战略要地,在汉莎同盟期间,塔林成为该同盟位于最北面的城市,在经济上深受德国的影响。16世纪利沃尼亚战争后成为瑞典的一部分,1710年俄瑞北方战争后,爱沙尼亚归入俄国。1918年爱沙尼亚独立,塔林成为首都。后来又经历了两次世界大战,相继成为德国和苏联的附属国。1991年与波罗的海三国一起正式独立。爱沙尼亚人喜欢唱歌,在争取独立期间爱沙尼亚人高唱被苏联禁止的歌曲,所以那次革命也被称为“歌唱革命”。
塔林是多元文化城市,文化和宗教上深受俄罗斯、北欧和日耳曼的影响,在城市布局和建筑上可以明显看到这三种文化的痕迹,但爱沙尼亚人向来独立自主的意识很强,再加上它有自己的语言和文化,所以即使这座城市完整保留了这三种文化的存在,但留给你的感觉,它们是融合于爱沙尼亚之中,而不是凌驾于其之上。
6日上午我们拜会了爱沙尼亚文化部长和议会爱中友谊议员联盟,并参观了议会。中午曲大使和林参赞宴请我们。下午我们在文化对话会前与塔林大学校长见面。然后在孔子学院作了交流,听众有三十多人,林参赞、新华社记者等也参加了对话会。会上张恩迪副主席、知名剧作家王丽萍老师和我分别作了演讲。我用英文作了题为“上海:从大型(big)城市到平衡、创新和优雅(BIG)城市”的演讲,主要突出这座国际大都市是如何从过去求大、求规模,到今天重生态、重创新和重人文的,尤其突出面向卓越的全球城市中城市人应有的社会责任,以此改变外国人对中国城市发展的印象。演讲中也穿插了一些当地要素,如对上海世博会爱沙尼亚馆“节约城市”主题的理解等。
随后我们直奔机场,目的地威尼斯。

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